Ποια είναι η συχνότητα εμφάνισης καρκίνου στις μέρες μας στην Ευρώπη;
Στην Ευρώπη , έχουμε περίπου 2,8 εκατομμύρια νέες περιπτώσεις καρκίνου κάθε χρόνο.
Ποιες μορφές καρκίνου παρατηρούνται συχνότερα;
Έχουν παρατηρηθεί τυχόν σημαντικές διαφοροποιήσεις μεταξύ Ελλάδας και Γαλλίας όσον αφορά την συχνότητα εμφάνισης καρκίνου;
Πόσο μεγάλη είναι η επίδραση της διατροφής και ειδικά της παχυσαρκίας στον κίνδυνο εμφάνισης καρκίνου;
Υπάρχει κάποια ηλικιακή ομάδα η οποία να είναι πιο ευαίσθητη στην αρνητική είτε θετική επίδραση των διατροφικών συνηθειών όσον αφορά τον κίνδυνο καρκίνου;
Όσον αφορά την διατροφή, ποιος παράγοντας θεωρείτε ότι έχει την μεγαλύτερη επίδραση στον κίνδυνο για καρκίνο;
Θα μπορούσε ένα διατροφικό πρόγραμμα να προστατέψει κάποιον με γενετική προδιάθεση από το να εμφανίση την ασθένεια;
Τα γαλακτοκομικά προϊόντα έχουν παρουσιάσει διαφορετικά αποτελέσματα σχετικά με διαφορετικές μορφές καρκίνου;
Θεωρείτε ότι τα συμπληρώματα είναι ένας παράγοντας που μπορεί να επηρεάσει, θετικά είτε αρνητικά, τον κίνδυνο εμφάνισης καρκίνου;
Τα ψάρια είναι μια ομάδα τροφίμων που έχει θεωρηθεί ότι έχει πολλές ευεργετικές ιδιότητες. Αυτό ισχύει και όσον αφορά τον καρκίνο;
Ποια είναι η άποψη σας σχετικά με την επίδραση του κρασιού και του αλκοόλ στις περιπτώσει καρκίνου;
Which is the prevalence of cancer thesedays in Europe and which types are mostly observed?
In Europe, we have about 2.8 Million new cases of cancer every year and the most frequent tumor types are, for women, breast followed by colorectal and, for men, prostate cancer followed by lung cancer and colorectal cancer.
Are there any important differences noticed between incidence of cancer in France and Greece? How is this diversity explained?
There is no such difference between the incidence of cancer in France and in Greece.
How much an impact does body weight and especially obesity have on cancer risk?
Body weight and especially obesity have an impact on cancer risks, increasing this risk very significantly because adipocytes are producing IGF which is a growth factor that stimulates the growth of cancer cells.
Is there any age group that is more susceptible to the positive or negative impact their eating habits have on their cancer risk?
In fact, eating habits may impact the individual cancer risk whether you are young or old, black or white, a man or a woman… However, it is obvious that one cannot imagine a universal diet against cancer! Most probably, in the future we will be able to identify some foods that will be better for men or for women, for children or for senior citizens. For instance, we already know that Vitamin E increases the risk of prostate cancer in men but has no impact on the risk of cancer in women. This is the case for many other nutrients and foods.
When it comes to nutrition, which factor do you believe has a bigger impact on cancer risk and which dietary habits are better to be avoided?
It is difficult to say which are the dietary habits that should be avoided. What is important, is to have a high variety in what you eat, following for instance the seasons. What we call the “westernization” of our nutrition (which means that we are influenced by American eating habits) is meanly made of a very poor variety in the selection of your foods and, on a more global view, eating too much, too salted, too fat, too much sugar, not with organized meals but at any time during the day and not having enough physical activity.
Could a diet plan prevent someone with a genetic predisposition from expressing the disease?
Unfortunately no diet has been yet indentified that could prevent someone with a genetic predisposition to develop malignancies.
Dairy products have shown different results on different types of cancer. Which types does this refer to and how is it explained?
About dairy products, indeed the results are very conflicting. It looks like eating a lot of dairy products may increase the risk of prostate cancer in men but decrease the risk of colorectal cancer in women.
Do you think supplements are a factor that could affect, either positively or negatively, cancer risk? If so, what type of supplements do you think have the greatest impact?
I think that we should not take any kind of supplements because we don’t know what we are causing by taking most of these supplements. For instance, several studies have shown that supplements made of beta-carotene, or retinoide or vitamin A, increase very significantly the risk of lung cancer in smokers. However, there is no such an increase in the risk of lung cancer with these vitamins or supplements in the non smoking population. So, as I said, the link and the relationship between what you eat and the risk of developing that type or that cancer is much more complex that one can imagine. We are at the beginning of a new science called nutrigenomic that will explain.
Fish is a food group that has been thought to have many beneficial properties. Does this stand for cancer as well?
About fish, again I think that it is impossible to say that fish are always good for your health. There are several fishes including salmon, red tuna, sword fish, halibut that are heavily contaminated by heavy metal such as mercury, arsenic, and cadmium, and contaminated also (mainly for the salmon) by POPs (persistent organic pollutants), such as dioxin and pyralen. All these products are highly carcinogenic and the concentration that can be found in some fishes are so high that it can be considered that eating on a regular base these kinds of fish may impact on the risk of cancer. Another aspect of the relation between fish consumption and cancer is that it has been shown earlier this year, through several studies, that the high consumption of omega-3 fatty acids, either as supplements or through the consumption of fat fishes, seems to be able to increase the risk of very aggressive prostate cancer.
What is your opinion on the effect of wine and alcohol in cancer cases?
I will not speak about alcohol which obviously is not a good nutriment. However wine is not such a bad thing! If you have a moderate drinking, which means less than 2 glasses per day for the average woman and less than 3 glasses per day for a man, because of the polyphenols and the resveratrol that the wine contains (mainly in the red wine), that will not increase the risk of cancer and may decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, if you drink a higher quantity of wine, you may indeed increase the risk of developing some types of cancer, including mouth, esophageal, gastric cancers for instance.